Short Chain Fatty Acids
Bacterial decomposition of fibre in the colon releases several volatile substances, such as short chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic and butyric acids). These fatty acids are quickly absorbed by – and are food for – the intestinal mucous membrane.
Proteins are molecules composed of long chains of subunits call amino acids. They play several roles: build and repair muscles, carry oxygen and nerve impulse, facilitate digestion, enhance body immunity and provide the body with energy. There are essential and non-essential amino acids.
Essential Amino Acids (indispensables)
There are nine essential amino acids. A complete dietary protein is a protein that contains all the essential amino acids because the body is unable to adequately synthesize them to meet the needs of the cell.
Fatty acids carry liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). See also “Essential Fatty Acids”, “Unsaturated Fatty Acids (UFA) (Monounsaturated [MFA] and Polyunsaturated [PFA])” and “Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)”.
Essential Fatty Acids
Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized in the body and have to be supplied through the diet. Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid). They serve multiple functions, such as protecting the vascular system and regulating the inflammatory and immune functions and they are also essential to brain and nerve function.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids (UFA) (Monounsaturated [MFA] and Polyunsaturated [PFA])
UFA (MFA and PFA) play several roles, such as lowering ”bad” cholesterol (LDL) levels without reducing ”good” cholesterol (HDL) levels, contributing to the manufacture of hormones and modulating inflammatory response to infection. They are found in cold-pressed vegetable oils from the first pressing (olive, canola, etc.), oleaginous fruits (almonds, hazelnuts, etc.), fatty fish (salmon, sardines, etc.), soy and soy lecithin. The ”essential” ones, such as omega-6 and omega-3, are not produced by the body and must come from a food source.
Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)
A high consummation of SFA can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. They have the disadvantage of increasing the ”bad” cholesterol (LDL), which results in fat deposits on arterial walls. Saturated fatty acids are found in meats, animal products, butter, cream, coconut and lard.
Lactid acid: Cells utilize glucose for energy production using anaerobic respiration (aerobic glycolysis) and lactic acid is used to re-form glycogen in the liver. During intense exercise, lactic acid is accumulated in our muscles and this causes muscle cramping.
Retinoic acid: is used to treat skin disease.
If not used for fuel, an amount of fat consumed through diet is stored in adipocytes (also called adipose cells). A high-fat diet leads to larger adipocytes: they an easily grow to more than 50 times their initial size. In the case of a weight gain, adipocytes first increase in volume before multiplication if weight ratio continues to increase. However, after a marked weigh loss, the number of adipocytes does not decrease, which cause weight regain.
Food allergies are abnormal reactions of the immune system that occur in response to otherwise harmless substances. Symptoms appear a few minutes to several hours after the ingestion – they vary greatly from one to another: skin reactions, asthma, digestive problems, etc. The most serious allergic reaction is called anaphylaxis (is a severe allergic reaction, in which your body’s immune system reacts to an allergen by producing large amounts of histamine, which cause swelling and breathing problems).
Food: Solid or liquid substances that serve as nutritional resources and provide our body with the necessary energy and nutrients.
A functional food may be similar in appearance to, or may actually be, a conventional food that is consumed as part of a regular diet. Functional foods must demonstrate physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond providing basic nutrients.
A balanced diet meets the quantitative and qualitative needs of the body and helps to maintain a healthy body weight.
A relatively unstable substance that have the ability to act as an electron donor for neutralizing free radicals. Anti-oxidants can therefore reduce the process of free radicals by protecting body cells against degradation caused by their assaults and reduce the risk associated to oxidative stress. They also protect cells, unsaturated fats, proteins, DNA and LDL cholesterol by neutralizing the formation of free radicals and reinforce the immune system. Anti-oxidants are found in fruits and vegetables and include vitamins C and E, flavonoids, beta-carotene and the coenzyme Q10.
Producing an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation.
Is a pathological condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol.
Energy needs are depending on a person’s age, physical activity level, weight and size. An average female requires 2,000 calories per day and male 2,500 calories.
Beta-carotene is one of a group of red, orange, and yellow pigments that give a bright color to fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, melons, apricots, mangos, red bell peppers, etc. It is called “pro-vitamin A,” since it can be converted into vitamin A, beta-carotene is a more powerful anti-oxidant than vitamin A that protects the body against skin, eye, liver and lung damage. It plays vital roles in maintaining good cardiovascular health, in prevention of LDL oxidation and in the immune system.
Beneficial bacteria (probiotic) of the intestinal flora.
Biomarker (Biological Marker)
Biological parameter indicating a normal process.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL).
Acting as cement for bones, calcium helps keep bones dense and strong, prevents osteoporosis and regulates blood coagulation. Calcium can be found in cheese, milk, yogurt, dried beans, chickpeas, cabbage, watercress and dried figs.
Casein is the main protein in milk. It is a slow-digesting protein with high amounts of glutamine.
Cellulite is mostly caused, in women, by the weakness of connective tissues. Often thought to be caused by heredity, this weakness can also be caused by the bowels’ overstress. Some deposits, usually eliminated by the liver and bowels, stay in the body and become, in intercellular spaces, solid deposits that block blood and lymph’s transit, preventing a good tissue irrigation.
Metabolism of the acetyl-coenzyme A (active form of acetic acid), which causes the formation of ketone bodies in the organism.
Cholesterol is lipid in cell membranes and plays an important role in the formation of bile salts and hormones. It can be produced by the body or comes from sources of animal products. There are two types of cholesterol: good cholesterol (HDL) and bad cholesterol (LDL).
Is the presence of cholesterol in the blood.
Chromium helps to lower blood sugar levels and plays a role in fat metabolism. It is found in meats, cereals, eggs and brewer’s yeast.
As a strong antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 is important in protecting the structure of several molecules such as vitamin E and lipids. It can help reduce blood clots, normalize glycaemia in diabetics, lower hypertension and reduce wrinkles depth.
The most abundant protein in your body is collagen. Secreted by connective tissue cells throughout the body (muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bones, lungs and skin), collagen helps skin regeneration and contributes to slow down the aging process. It also strengthens skin tone and elasticity, contributes to dermal regeneration and supplies essential proteins that serve to mould the original structure.
Is a preparation intended to supplement the daily diet in order to compensate for its deficiencies.
Organic compounds that form when the body uses fat, instead of glucose, as a source of energy. Extensive fasting period and diabetes can raise ketone levels in the blood. This abnormal accumulation causes a pathological state named ketose.
Beauty food, this new food tendency has just arrived in our plates.
Necessary for the synthesis of protein and the formation of hemoglobin, copper helps the body resist and fight off infection. It is found in liver, meats, seashells, fish eggs, green vegetables, cocoa, soy, dry fruits and lentils.
Weight-loss method that reduces caloric intakes and lowers limits of lipid and carbohydrate intakes, but has a high protein value. This method helps the body to draw upon the chemical energy stored in fat in order to perform its essential functions.
As a hemoglobin constituent, iron participates in the transport of oxygen in organs. It helps fighting against infections as well as against physical and intellectual fatigue. Iron is found in cocoa, parsley, egg yolk, chickpeas, dry beans, lentils, veal liver, quahog or clam-type shells, oysters and meat products.
Dietary fibres are carbohydrates that can be found in plant cell walls, hich are resistant to digestion by enzymes. They influence intestinal transit, absorb bile salts and cholesterol, contribute to maintaining a healthy weight, and play a role in cancer prevention, etc. There are two types of fibres: insoluble and soluble fibres.
Insoluble fibres act as small sponges inside the intestines: as they fill up with water, they increase the stool volume and help in regulating the bowel function. As they slow down the digestion, they favor the satiation state, which contributes to weight loss by suppressing appetite. The best sources of insoluble fibres are: whole grain foods, vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains and legumes.
Soluble fibres become a gel when mixed with water and contribute to reducing blood cholesterol levels. Moreover, they act as a filter in the intestines by slowing down the absorption of carbohydrates into the blood. It is necessary to daily ingest a large amount of fibres to improve glycemic control. The best sources of soluble fibres are: psyllium, bran, oat cereals, barley, legumes and pectin-rich fruits (apples, oranges, strawberries, pears, etc.).
Flavonoids are antioxidants that have 20 and 50 times more potent antioxidant activity than vitamins C and E. They are found in some fruits (e.g. grape seed extract). They protect the body against insulin resistance, which often appears with age, reduce the risks of cancers, stimulate joint flexibility, reduce arthritis inflammation, attenuate mental deterioration, boost the immune system and reduce retinal disorders.
A group of bacteria commonly found in the bowels that is important to a Healthy Digestive System.
Substance found in water, tea and sea salt. During the stage of tooth development, fluoride consumed is absorbed in the body and is incorporated to the inorganic component of the tooth structure (hydroxyapatite) – by making the tooth more resistant to decay. When present in the mouth, fluoride works primarily after teeth have erupted and decreases the demineralization action of organic acids produced by dental plaque bacteria responsible for cavities.
They are non-assimilable polysaccharides, or dietary fibre, and are not digested in the human small intestine – they that travel undigested to the colon. This prebiotic feeds probiotics, which limits the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, positively influences lipid profiling by reducing LDL and triglycerides, reinforces magnesium and calcium absorption, which improves bone density, has a beneficial impact on the immune system and supports a reduction of hepatic glucose production during fasting. FOS for commercial use is chicory root.
Carbohydrates are a part of the three basic components of foods, with the proteins and lipids. Carbohydrates (so-called sugars) are classified in two groups: simple and complex carbohydrates. They are decomposed into sugar (glucose) – primary source of energy:
▪ One gram of carbohydrates produces four kilocalories (kcal).
▪ Carbohydrates are decomposed as glucose in the body. Simple carbohydrates quickly decompose to become glucose while complex carbohydrates undergo a much slower degradation to become glucose.
▪ Glucose is an energetic compound quickly useable by all body cells and notably by nerve cells (glucose being the only energy source for the brain). Unused glucose can be transformed to become glycogen, which is stored in the liver and in muscles, where it becomes a mobilizable energy reserve according to the body needs.
Biochemically, complex carbohydrates are composed of simple sugar units. They are found in starchy foods, legumes, etc. Your body converts complex carbs into energy at a slower rate than do simple sugars. That is why they have long been classified ”slow sugars”.
See Complex Carbohydrates.
See Simple Carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates (i.e. saccharose, glucose, fructose, lactose, etc.) are, for the most part, quickly absorbed by the body (this is why they have long been classified ”fast sugars”) and support weight gain when consumed in excessive amounts. Simple carbohydrates are found in candies, sweets, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, honey, etc.
Glucose is a simple sugar that belongs to the carbohydrate family. Found in nature, it is the human body’s key source of energy, particularly of the brain.
Blood sugar levels.
Glycogen is raised especially in liver and muscles and is composed of a large number of glucose units. In glycogen, glucose is stored as an energy supply to meet a sudden need. Glycogen can be quickly decomposed and released in the blood when needed, for example, during an effort.
Saturated fat is mainly from animal sources of food such as meat products, dairy products and eggs. Saturated fat has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and raises total blood cholesterol levels. It is possible to reduce the saturated fat intake by consuming more fruits, vegetables, fish, crustaceans, seafood, whole grains, peas, beans, lentils and nuts.
Homeostasis is the ability of the body to keep a stable internal environment (temperature, physiologic liquid composition, etc.) from the exterior environment. More simply, homeostasis is the body’s internal balance.
Soluble in water.
Low in calories.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
The body mass index, or BMI, is an index recognized by several international authorities as being the best way to define underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obesity. A simple calculation allows assessing the BMI, which is equal to the weight in kilos, divided by the waist in square meters. If the result falls between 18.5 and 25, the weight is considered as normal. Between 25 and 30, the person is overweighed. Over 30, it is obesity. A BMI lower than 18.5 is classified as underweight.
Glycemic Index (GI)
Glycemic index (GI) provides a measure of blood sugar levels (glucose) in the blood and allows us to classify foods according to the speed at which they raise our glycaemia (glucose blood level). A high-GI food causes a more rapid rise in blood glucose levels and stimulates the secretion of insulin, which results in cellular uptake of glucose, and subsequent lowering of blood glucose. Therefore, a food ranking high on the GI scale causes a rapid spike in blood sugar resulting from insulin action. Low blood glucose increases hunger; high blood glucose decreases hunger. This said, high glycemic index foods risk gaining excess weight as they increase appetite.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to decrease glycemia. A lack of insulin can cause diabetes.
Metabolic food disorder caused by an enzyme deficiency that does not involve the individual’s immune system. It is usually a digestive problem.
Iodine is an important mineral trace element necessary for life and thyroid health. It is found in iodine salt, fish, seafood and algae.
Edible product generally contains over 90 % protein. The isolate is obtained from leaves of oilseed rape plants (nuts, flax and sesame seeds, etc.) and other organic material through several chemical or physical processes.
A liquid product of the coagulation of the milk that does not contain casein but it consists of lactalbumin, lactoglobulin, lactose and mineral salts.
Milk & Dairy Products
A food group that is rich in animal proteins, calcium, group B vitamins and vitamin A (only for partly skim and whole products). They include milk, cheese, yogurt, white cheese, etc.
Green Vegetables and Fruits
A food group that includes all fresh, frozen, canned, and dried vegetables and greens. They have several nutritional benefits: they are rich in water, vitamins, minerals, plant fibres and non-heminic iron.
Essential nutrients that supply energy for proper body function. Fats, cholesterol and lecithin are a part of the group of lipids. Each gram of fat supplies the body with about 9 calories. The three fatty acids are: saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA).
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
Also known as ”bad cholesterol”, LDL transports cholesterol to the cells. When there is too much cholesterol, it accumulates on blood vessel walls and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
High density lipoproteins (HDLs) carry the excess of cholesterol accumulated in the cells to the liver so that it can be eliminated. HDL are therefore good lipoproteins, considered as ”good” cholesterol.
That is soluble in fatty tissues. A liposoluble nutrient can therefore be stored.
One of the 20 most common amino acids, lysine is an essential amino acid that should be added to foods and is indispensable for proper growth. It is found in all natural proteins, especially in animals, in the form of an odorless, lightly salty and very water-soluble microcrystalline white powder.
Nutrient required by the body in relatively large amounts. Macronutrients include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and water. With the exception of water, macronutrients are a source of energy for the body.
Manganese plays a role in bone and joint protein synthesis. It is found in cereals, dried vegetables, whortleberries and peaches.
Magnesium plays a role in sensory impulses transmission and in muscular contractions. It is found in cocoa, almonds, chickpeas, dried beans, split peas, whole cereals, wheat germ and soy.
Disease affecting heart and blood vessels.
A disease (often genetic) in which the function or structure of the affected tissues or organs will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to the accumulation of biological products or toxins or the continued absence of a given biological substance, which in turn causes progressive degeneration of the specific organs. Patients and their families could difficultly assess these symptoms because they develop slowly but may lead to a significant disability. Degenerative diseases, treated on time, can be slowed down, but not cured.
Lean Body Mass
Total bodyweight (of skin, bones, muscles, organs and liquids). A significant loss of lean body mass poses a risk to human health.
The most energetic of macronutrients (1 g provides 9 kcal), fats, or lipids, are present in our diet in two ways: visible fats (oil, butter and margarine) and hidden fats naturally present in foods (fatty meats, fatty fish, etc.). Fatty acids that constitute these lipids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Fats also provide liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E and K).
Low density lipoprotein (LDL).
The sum of the biological and chemical processes in an organism and by which energy is made available. Basal and resting metabolism rates are the amount of energy your body needs to maintain essential vital functions: heartbeats, breathing, maintaining body temperature, etc.
Considered an essential sulfur-containing amino acid for the human metabolism, methionine is directly involved in protein and cysteine synthesis and plays an essential role in transmethylations. Methionine in the free state can be found in small amounts in blood plasma and in pure state, it is a crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in alcohol.
Separation of microparticles from the fluid in which it is suspended by passage through a microporous membrane. This process allows the elimination of microorganisms.
Nutrient needed by the body in relatively small quantities. Micronutrients include vitamins, minerals, oligoelements, etc.
Our body needs larger amounts of some minerals and oligoelements – some of them are the building blocks of bones, blood, hormones or digestive secretions, and are implicated in many vital processes. Minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulphur, etc.
Substance helps with the transmission of impulses in the nervous system between a neuron and another neuron or a specific muscle fibre, a sensory cell or a glandular cell. The main neurotransmitters are amines, amino acids and peptides. Acetylcholine, noradrenalin and serotonin are examples of neurotransmitters.
Nutricosmetics are defined by the consumption of foods rich in active principles and is strongly growing in Europe and Japan. Nutricosmetics are not only food supplements: they are products with active elements acting through blood circulation, and that can then be seen on visible body areas (skin, nails, hair, etc.). Nutricosmetics progressively act and are designed to improve health and to boost physical beauty.
Nutrients come from the digestion process, which are then used by the body to provide energy. There are two groups of nutrients: macronutrients and micronutrients.
Oligoelements, or trace mineral, are found in smaller quantities in the organism, and are involved in most biochemical reactions and allow digestion and food elaboration. These needs are easily met in most cases with a well-balanced diet. Iodine, selenium, iron, zinc and magnesium are oligoelement examples.
Most powerful flavonoid sub-group, OPC are mostly concentrated in grape seeds and have powerful anti-oxidizing properties (that have 20 and 50 times more potent antioxidant activity than vitamins C and E). They are both water-soluble and liposoluble and are an effective collagen protector: by linking to collagen, they contribute to preserving connective tissues’ structure. Therefore, OPC contribute to reducing visible signs of premature aging and to improving blood circulation. They also have a positive effect on several factors of cardiovascular diseases, protect the body against insulin resistance, which often appears with age, reduce the risks of cancers, stimulate joint flexibility, reduce arthritis inflammation, attenuate mental deterioration, boost the immune system and reduce retinal disorders.
Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated essential fatty acids found in large amounts in fatty fish, chia seeds, flaxseeds, nuts, false flax, colza and soy. They have favorable effects on cellular composition of membranes as well as on several biochemical processes in the body: blood pressure regulation, blood vessels elasticity, immune and anti-inflammatory reactions and aggregation of blood platelets.
Omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated essential fatty acids found in most vegetable oils, seeds and cereals. They are found in eggs or certain meat products in varying quantities depending on the animal’s diet. They play an important role in insuring nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems work properly, as well as in reducing allergic and inflammatory reactions and in accelerating would healing.
Chemical reaction in which a substance is combined with oxygen, and is generally due to undesirable changes.
In Canada, a number of food additives, including phosphate salts, are authorized in the preparation of meats and poultry. Phosphate salts retain water in these products, in order to make them moister and tenderer compared to untreated meats and poultry.
About four-fifths of phosphorus is combined with oxygen. In osseous tissues, phosphorus is vital to energy production and exchange. It is found in fish, meat products, eggs, dried vegetables, dried fruits, chocolate, wheat germ and whole cereals.
Platelets are produced in bone marrow. Its primary role is to initiate blood clots after an injury.
Also known as complex sugars or slow sugars, polysaccharides are composed of long or short chains of glucose. The most well-known polysaccharide is starch. It is mostly found in cereals, potatoes, legumes, etc.
Potassium is involved in cell’s water content and distribution as well as in muscular contraction. It is found in lentils, meat products, tuna, sardines, bananas, green vegetables, cocoa, beer yeast, avocados and dried fruits.
Prebiotic are fibre that stimulate the activity of microorganisms (e.g. fructooligosaccharides, such as inulin, extracted from the chicory root). Prebiotics is the term given to fibre because they help the multiplication of probiotic colonies and feed beneficial intestinal bacteria (probiotics).
Chemical or biological substance responsible for the therapeutic effect of a product.
Probiotics are useful microorganisms that constitute the oral, intestinal and vaginal floras. Their role is to protect the body against harmful microorganisms that can, for example, cause infectious diarrheas, or vaginitis. Probiotics also aid digestion. It is known that fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, facilitate lactose digestion, mostly in people with lactose intolerance.
Production of substances linked to the liver and to bile ducts.
A food group that includes pasta, bread, rice, potatoes and legumes. Its primary role is to supply energy because it is rich in complex carbohydrates. This food group contains plant protein, fibres, minerals and group B vitamins.
Made with organic agricultural ingredients, an organic food is grown without chemicals (no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides) – only products with organic content that is greater than or equal to 95% may be labeled as organic (AB label).
Dietetic foods are foods that are different from food for normal consumption because they are intended for particular nutritional uses or production process for people with particular nutritional needs (children, pregnant women, older people, athletes, etc.)
Product found in nature or near its original environment that was only minimally processed (i.e. drying).
A food group that includes sugar, candies, honey, jams, etc. Mainly energetic, sweet products do not participate in the nutritional intake and are often qualified as “empty” calories.
Which causes oxidation.
Lipid profile can determine the full metabolic effects of several types of influences on the lipid metabolism, including nutrition, pharmacology, toxicology and genetics.
As the building blocks of the body, protein is vital to help the body build, repair and maintain body tissues. Proteins are made out of amino acids chains, nine of which are essential. They provide the less calories than or lipids; they never going to be converted to fat and stored as such. Protein consumption stimulates serotonin synthesis and as thus, reduces hunger. There are two types of proteins: animal and plant proteins.
Animal proteins contain nine essential amino acids and are found in meat products, fish, dairy products, eggs, etc.
A protein that cannot be made by the body and as such, that must be daily supplied by food.
Protein slowly digested by the body, it well supports the metabolic function, encourages protein synthesis and muscle mass protection. Casein is a slow protein.
An example of quickly digested protein is the whey protein.
Plant proteins do not contain all nine essential amino acids – by combining these two protein families that are complimentary (animal and plant proteins), deficiencies of each can be overcome. They are found in cereals, legumes, oleaginous (nuts, hazelnuts, etc.), soy, etc.
The synthesis of proteins.
Provitamin A (Carotene)
Provitamin A has the same role as vitamin A, but as another mode of action: antioxidation. It is found in leafy green vegetables as well as in red or orange fruits and vegetables.
Free radicals are incomplete and very unstable substances with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons. These try and steal an electron from a neighboring molecule to stabilize itself. By completing themselves, free radicals destabilize a neighbor molecule, causing a chain reaction and cell destructions. Free radical proliferation can be caused by a lack of antioxidants – if the free-radical production becomes excessive, free radicals do harm and damage. Free radicals speed up the aging process, weaken the immune system, maintain inflammation and are involved in the development of several diseases.
Aldehydic form of retinol (vitamin A).
Retinol is a vitamin that plays a protective important role in vision, mucosa and skin, and in the fight against free radicals and as thus, has beneficial effects to prevent cancer. It can be found in animals and in plants.
Long-term damage to the retina caused by complications of diabetes.
Selenium neutralizes free radicals, protects against organ aging and reinforces the immune system. It is found in fish, meat products, garlic, whole cereals and wheat germ.
Pain neurotransmitter produced by nerve fibres, serotonin orchestrates feeding behavior by reducing sugar cravings and mood swings.
With potassium, sodium plays an essential role in maintaining osmotic pressure and water retention in the body. It also participates in the acid-base equilibrium and contributes to muscle functions. A majority of sodium comes from table salt and salt added during food process (cheeses, chips, deli meats, crackers, etc.).
Damage due to increasing amounts of free radical involving oxygen, which affects molecules, cells or the entire organism. Oxidative stress plays a role in aging and may be associated to degenerative diseases.
Synthesis (of serotonin, of proteins, etc.)
Organisation of several simple components into a more complex structure.
The immune system consists of cellular and molecular components that work together to defend the body against attacks by bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungus.
Tissues supporting and linking organs and other body structures. Connective tissues constitute a significant portion of the body mass (around 65% of the total volume of a human body).
Heat production. Thermogenesis allows maintaining internal body temperatures.
Which performs thermogenesis. The eating action produces a thermogenic phenomenon caused by increased activity in the digestive system.
Chemical product contained in fats. The term “vitamin E” includes tocopherols and tocotrienols.
Light, permanent and involuntary contraction of the striated muscles depending on the nerve centres. Tonus sets joints in a determined position and maintain the posture.
The major form of fat stored by the body and found in foods. During the digestive process, the triglycerides in food are decomposed and then absorbed in the intestinal wall cells before they are released into the blood stream. There is a link between a high level of triglycerides and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin: an increase serotonin production is an increase in the ratio of tryptophan.
Ultrafiltration is a variety of membrane filtration in which hydrostatic pressure forces a liquid against a semipermeable membrane.
Any agent (nerve, natural substance, drug, medication) that increases diameter of blood vessels.
Food group including poultry, giblets, ham, fish and eggs. Meat products and eggs are a fundamental intake in high quality protein, iron, A-group vitamins and B-group vitamins. Fish and crustaceans also provide iodine.
Vitamins do not contain calories, but have other important bodily functions. 13 vitamins are grouped into two categories: liposoluble and water-soluble vitamins.
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Liposoluble vitamin is present in the body under different forms: retinol, retinal, retinoic acid or retinyl palmitate. This vitamin improves visual acuity, is necessary for a good condition of the skin and mucous membranes, helps regulate the immune system and contributes to improving skin health. It is found in butter, cream, milk, cheese, liver, cod liver, egg yolks, etc.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, vitamin B1 is necessary to supports the normal function of the nervous system. It is found in eggs, whole cereals, vegetables and dried fruits.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Essential for the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, iron and vitamins B6 and PP, vitamin B2 plays a role in nerve function.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
Vitamin B5 is essential for the metabolism of protids, lipids and carbohydrates. It is found in meat products, egg yolks, fish, whole cereals and wheat germ.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Essential to the absorption and for the metabolism of proteins, vitamin B6 protects nerve cells. It is found in meat products, fish, seafood, cereals, green vegetables, wheat germ and whole cereals.
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Vitamin B9 is necessary in cell reproduction (i.e. red and white blood cells, nerve cells) and in amino acid metabolism. It is found in liver, yeast, green leaved vegetables and wheat germ.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamic Acid)
Vitamin B12 has antianemic properties, which is necessary for red cell formation and good condition of the skin and mucous membranes (nails and hair).
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Vitamin C is an antioxidant that is involved in the antioxidant defense of the cell and is essential for fighting infections, as well, is important in iron absorption and provides protection against free radicals. It contributes greatly to regenerate other antioxidizing vitamins such as vitamin E and beta-carotene, and it helps regenerating skin, ligaments, cartilages, bones, teeth and gums as it plays a role in collagen production. It also supports a good immune system and increases the speed of healing. Vitamin C is mostly found in vegetables, fruits and citrus fruits.
Vitamin D (Calciferol)
Vitamin D helps the bones fix calcium. It is found in liver, egg yolks, cod liver and cheese.
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Liposoluble nutrient and excellent antioxidant for fats, vitamin E plays an important role in protecting cell membranes because it helps neutralize free radical molecules before they enter the cells. It also contributes to preventing aging, cataracts and atherosclerosis, participates to protecting red blood cells and body tissues and possesses anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet and vasodilator properties while reinforcing the immune system. Vitamin E has a greater therapeutic potential when it is associated with other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin A and beta-carotene.
Vitamin H (B8) (Biolin)
Vitamin B8 is essential for the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. It is found in offal, meat products, egg yolks, fish, cereals and dairy products.
Vital to the blood coagulation process, vitamin K is antihemorrhagic.
Soluble in water, water-soluble vitamins are dissolved in blood and the fluid of tissues. Our body does not store them and any excess is eliminated in urine. Water-soluble vitamins include vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B8, B9, B12 and C.
Liposoluble vitamins are soluble in lipids and can be stored in the liver and in fatty tissues. They include vitamins A, D, E and K.
Vitamin PP (B3) (Niacin)
Vitamin B3 is essential in the absorption process and for the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is found in whole cereals, beer yeast, green and dry vegetables, fruits, offal and pork.
Zinc plays a role in growth, healing, reproduction, resistance to infections, for the good condition of skin and hair. It is found in meat products, giblets, poultry, seashells, fish, peas and mushrooms.
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